What is the deal with collagen?
Collagen is a protein that several amino acids compose, forming long chain molecules known as polymers. Collagen is essential for the formation of connective tissue throughout the human body, and researchers have identified approximately 28 different types of collagen. Collagen plays a crucial role in tissue repair, renewal, and strengthening of skin, bones, tendons, cartilage, and many other structures, making it a vital component of human health.
The most regular types of collagen include Type I, which is found in all connective tissues, Type II, located in joints and intervertebral discs, Type III, a major element of reticular fibers located in the skin and bloodstream, and Type IV, elements of the kidney, inner ear, and lens.
Collagen and Skin
When a person ingests collagen, the body does not break down all of the collagen into individual amino acids, which are small protein fragments composed of chains of a few to a few dozen amino acids. Instead, the majority of collagen passes through the system and can travel to the skin to aid in the production of more collagen.
Although amino acids are used throughout the body, they do not directly penetrate the skin in significant quantities to produce noticeable effects. However, research indicates that oral collagen can still enhance skin health and decrease wrinkles. This is likely because complete collagen is made up of three basic amino acid rods in the alpha configuration, which combine and intertwine with each other in a triple helix structure to form large chains of collagen.
To comprehend how cells synthesize collagen, one must examine cell structure and function, or cytology. Most cells possess organelles that function as small organs performing specific functions. These organelles work together to produce collagen, which is then transported to the skin to repair and replenish it.
Types of Collagen in the Human Body
Specialized fibroblasts called osteoblasts produce Type 1 collagen, which is the most abundant type of collagen in the human body. It is primarily found in bony structures, dentinal fascia, and areas of wound repair, providing strength and structure to the structures in which it is present. Due to its versatile properties, Type 1 collagen has many medical applications in artificial skin, joint repair, wound healing, joint replacement, and anti-aging procedures such as facial fillers.
Type 2 collagen, produced by fibroblasts, is present in a variety of human body tissues and particularly abundant in cartilage, intervertebral discs, and the vitreous portion of the eye. It is also found in some areas of the skin and tendons. Type 2 collagen is strong and flexible, making it ideal for flexible areas that still need to hold up over time. It is also essential to support the natural structure and function of these areas.
Type 3 collagen is a type of collagen protein found in various human tissues. It is most commonly found in the walls of blood vessels, fetal tissue, early granulation tissue, and the basal membrane of the dermis. Type 3 collagen provides strength and flexibility to various tissues in the body, acting as a scaffolding to provide structure for cells and regulating blood flow.
Type 4 collagen is a structural protein and a significant component of the extracellular matrix found in human tissues. It is an essential part of the basement membrane, which acts as a physical barrier between cells and maintains tissue structure. Type 4 collagen is found in the elements of the kidney, inner ear, and lens, playing a role in their structure and integrity. Additionally, it plays a role in tissue repair, wound healing, maintaining blood vessel integrity, and tissue homeostasis.
To remember these four types, one can use the acronym SCAB, with S for skin, C for cartilage of arteries, veins, and capillaries, A for the basal membrane of the dermis, and B for basement membrane. Fibroblasts synthesize collagen in the body.
Amino Acids and Collagen Production Process
Amino acids, including glycine and proline, are essential components of proteins. Glycine is the simplest biochemically, with its outgroup consisting of just a hydrogen atom, while proline is bulkier. In a polypeptide chain, every third amino acid is glycine, providing the necessary space to reduce interactions between fatty amino acids like proline.
The production of collagen is initiated when fibroblasts are activated, and the genes that code for collagen production are transcribed by messengers. RNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, where it encounters ribosomes consisting of two parts - a small one and a large one - that assemble the amino acids. The mRNA provides the order in which amino acids are placed, resulting in a protein chain called an alpha chain.
A collagen strand is formed from three alpha chains intertwined in a helix configuration, with the prepro-alpha chain being the first molecule to appear. This chain contains a signal sequence peptide at its N-terminus, necessary to continue the process that may or may not involve the addition of hydroxyl groups to chains, known as hydroxylation. This process requires molecular oxygen and vitamin C. Individuals with vitamin C deficiency experience weak collagen production, leading to scurvy, a disease that affects sailors. Also, some hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline can be modified by glycosylation, which involves adding glucose or galactose.
Once all these processes are completed, the pro-alpha chains form groups of three, forming the procollagen and, in the body, collagen is remodelled by an enzyme called chromogenesis in a continuous, dynamic and important process.
Collagen and Elastin Synthesis: Importance and Processes
Elastin is a vital component of the skin's dermis, allowing the skin to stretch and return to its original shape. Highly cross-linked elastic fibers and microfibrils are created by elastin, which is developed from basic amino acids such as glycine, valine, alanine, and proline.
A deficiency in any of these elements can halt elastin production, resulting in joint ligament, lung aorta, and health issues. Collagen, which makes up 70-80% of the skin's dry weight, serves as the structural component of the dermis. As a person ages, the natural production of collagen decreases, causing the skin to become thinner.
A lack of vitamin C hinders collagen formation due to a lack of hydroxyproline. As a result, the collagen lacks a proper helical shape and becomes structurally unstable, breaking down quickly.
Optimizing the Use of Oral Collagen Supplements for Skin Health
The indirect effects of orally-ingested collagen supplements on skin can be highly beneficial. Collagen peptides circulate through the bloodstream, signaling the body to produce more collagen, particularly in the skin. To amplify the effects of collagen, oral collagen supplements often include fragmented or "hydrolyzed" collagen, which is better absorbed in the digestive tract.
When selecting a collagen supplement, it is crucial to ensure that the product is backed by scientific evidence and proven to be effective. An excellent example of an effective IV Collagen Cocktail Formula includes collagen, amino acids such as l-proline, l-lysine, and l-glycine, and minerals like manganese, magnesium, and zinc. Additionally, powerful antioxidants like Vitamin C and Glutathione protect existing skin from damage due to oxidation and inflammation, promoting the formation of new, healthy skin and achieving a desirable glow.
Health Benefits of Collagen Supplements: Evidence and Potential Effects
Collagen supplements have been claimed to provide various health benefits. Here are some potential effects and evidence supporting them:
Improving skin health: Collagen is a vital structural protein found in the skin. With age, the production of collagen declines, leading to dryness and wrinkles. While there is anecdotal evidence supporting the use of collagen supplements for skin health, scientific research is yet to back up these claims.
Relieving joint pain: As a major component of cartilage, collagen helps maintain joint health. Daily collagen supplements can reduce joint pain and stiffness associated with osteoarthritis, potentially reducing inflammation and providing better joint support.
Preventing bone loss: Bones are primarily composed of collagen, and collagen and bone mass naturally decrease with age. Daily collagen supplements have been found to decrease levels of proteins associated with bone breakdown in postmenopausal women.
Increasing muscle mass: Skeletal muscle contains high levels of collagen, and daily collagen supplements may help build muscle mass in those with age-related muscle loss.
Supporting heart health: Collagen is a structural foundation for arteries, and a decrease in collagen levels can lead to less flexibility and elasticity in the arteries, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. Over a 6-month study, those consuming 16 grams of collagen per day experienced a decline in markers of atherosclerosis and an increase in good cholesterol levels.
Other potential health benefits: Collagen supplements are thought to aid in weight loss, brain health, intestinal health, and hair and nail health, but further research is needed to support these claims. They may assist with weight loss and metabolism, promote better mood and reduce anxiety, alleviate leaky gut syndrome, and strengthen hair and nails.
2. Collagen and Your Body: What to Know